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Definition of "opposition"

The time when the Earth lies between a planet and the Sun, making the Sun and planet appear in opposite directions as viewed from the Earth. Oppositions are the best opportunities for observing superior planets because they are well away from the glare of the Sun, and closer to the Earth than usual.

Strict definition
The configuration of Earth, Sun and planet when the apparent geocentric longitude of the planet and the Sun differ by 180°.